In universities, students often take related courses, such as physics and mathematics, which leads to a better understanding of both subjects. Similarly, learning a new language is easier for those who have already had experience with languages, particularly cognate ones. The same principle applies to machine learning, where a neural network can better comprehend multiple “subjects” if it learns them simultaneously. Considering that neural networks are one of the best approaches for predicting the biological properties of new chemical compounds, the question arises: How can we assist a neural network in simultaneously learning and predicting the properties of chemical compounds in relation to multiple biological targets?
Researchers analyzed three datasets for this purpose: a dataset with information on the antiviral activity of molecules and two datasets with information on the impact of molecules on various proteins in our body. The datasets varied in the completeness of information on each protein or virus. During the study, scientists discovered that adding data to the dataset is an effective method for improving prediction accuracy. Furthermore, they demonstrated that the more informative the original dataset is, the more noticeable this improvement. As a result of this work, the research team prepared a set of recommendations for using data enrichment technology to improve the quality and stability of predictions, as well as methods for objectively evaluating the improvement achieved.
“Multitask learning is widely used in many scientific fields. Unsurprisingly, it is increasingly being applied to develop new drugs. However, the potential of this approach has not yet been fully explored, presenting us with numerous unresolved tasks,” the lead author of the study, Skoltech PhD candidate Ekaterina Sosnina, notes. “We were inspired by the possibility of using multitask learning to develop new drug candidates and searched for ways to improve this approach. Following our recommendations, researchers in drug discovery will enhance the predictive accuracy of their models and accelerate the identification of novel drug candidates.”
Skoltech is a private international university in Russia, cultivating a new generation of leaders in the fields of science, technology, and business, conducting research in breakthrough fields, and promoting technological innovation with the goal of solving critical problems that face Russia and the world. Skoltech is focusing on six priority areas: artificial intelligence and communications, life sciences and health, cutting-edge engineering and advanced materials, energy efficiency and ESG, photonics, advanced studies. Established in 2011 in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Skoltech became the only Russian university to be listed among the leading 100 young universities in the Nature Index in 2019. Website: https://www.skoltech.ru/.